မွတ္ပံုတင္ရန္ အၿမဲေမးေနက် အသင္း၀င္မ်ား ျပကၡဒိန္ ဖတ္ၿပီးဖိုရမ္ေတြမွတ္ထားမယ္

 ျမန္မာမိသားစုဖိုရမ္ phython
ျမန္မာလက္ကြက္
 အမည္ မွတ္မိေစခ်င္တယ္။ စကား၀ွက္

 တန္ဆာပလာမ်ား ေဖာ္ျပမႈပံုစံ
 12-09-2008, 01:34 PM
 ေမာင္ဧက ကေလးေပါက္စ   အသင္း၀င္ေန႔စြဲ: Sep 2008 ေရးသားခ်က္မ်ား: 32 ႏိုင္ငံအလံ: ေက်းဇူးတင္စကား: 4 ပို႔စ္ 11 ခုအတြက္ 43 ဦးမွ ေက်းဇူးတင္ေၾကာင္းေျပာပါသည္။ phython ကြၽန္ေတာ္ကအခုမွေလ့လာရမွာေလ ၾကားဘူးေနတာၾကာၿပီေလ အခုမွေလ့လာခ်င္စိတ္ေပၚတာနဲ႔တင္ ebook ေတြရွာေနတာေလ သိပ္မေတြ႕ေသးဘူးဗ် နည္းနည္းပဲေတြ႔ေသးတာ website ေတြကေနေတြ႔ရတဲ႔ သူ႔အေၾကာင္းေလးေတြကုိ တင္ျပေပးပါ႔မယ္ sharing လုပ္ၾကတာေပါ႔ဗ်ာ
 12-09-2008, 01:40 PM
 akaris ထိပ္တန္းပညာရွင္   အသင္း၀င္ေန႔စြဲ: Apr 2008 တည္ေနရာ: NPT ေရးသားခ်က္မ်ား: 889 ႏိုင္ငံအလံ: ေက်းဇူးတင္စကား: 94 ပို႔စ္ 196 ခုအတြက္ 356 ဦးမွ ေက်းဇူးတင္ေၾကာင္းေျပာပါသည္။ ျပန္စာ - phython အိုေကေလ... ေရးမယ္ဆိုလည္း စၿပီးေရးပါေတာ႔ ... ဘာလဲဆိုတာ စိတ္ဝင္စားပါတယ္.... [COLOR="Blue"][SIZE="3"]ရံုးထြက္ဖို႔ ခက္တဲ႔ ဘဝ သံသရာထဲမွာ ႀကိဳးစားရုန္းကန္မႈေတြ နဲ႔ စိန္ေခၚမႈေတြကို ရင္ဆိုင္မယ္....![/SIZE][/COLOR]:tbc:
 12-09-2008, 01:49 PM
 ေမာင္ဧက ကေလးေပါက္စ   အသင္း၀င္ေန႔စြဲ: Sep 2008 ေရးသားခ်က္မ်ား: 32 ႏိုင္ငံအလံ: ေက်းဇူးတင္စကား: 4 ပို႔စ္ 11 ခုအတြက္ 43 ဦးမွ ေက်းဇူးတင္ေၾကာင္းေျပာပါသည္။ ျပန္စာ - phython ဟုတ္ကဲ႔ပါခင္ဗ်ာ ေရးေပးပါမယ့္ခင္ဗ်ာ ebook ေတြကုိ အရင္ ရွာေနလုိ႔ပါ ေနာက္ၿပီး အခုမွစေရးဘူးတာဆုိေတာ့ မွားသြားမွာလဲေၾကာက္လုိ႔ ေသခ်ာေအာင္ျပင္ဆင္ေနလုိ႔ပါ ခင္ဗ်ာ ခြင့္လႊတ္ေပးၾကပါခင္ဗ်ာ
 12-09-2008, 03:11 PM
 12-09-2008, 03:17 PM
 ေမာင္ဧက ကေလးေပါက္စ   အသင္း၀င္ေန႔စြဲ: Sep 2008 ေရးသားခ်က္မ်ား: 32 ႏိုင္ငံအလံ: ေက်းဇူးတင္စကား: 4 ပို႔စ္ 11 ခုအတြက္ 43 ဦးမွ ေက်းဇူးတင္ေၾကာင္းေျပာပါသည္။ ျပန္စာ - phython ကဲ သူရဲ႕ အဓိက လိပ္စာကေတာ့ http://www.python.org ေတာ္ေတာ္ကုိ အစုံအလင္ပါတယ္ code ေတြကုိ ေလ့လာခ်င္ရင္ http://code.activestate.com/recipes/langs/python/ Last edited by ေမာင္ဧက; 12-09-2008 at 03:28 PM..
 12-09-2008, 03:33 PM
 12-09-2008, 11:47 PM
 ေမာင္ဧက ကေလးေပါက္စ   အသင္း၀င္ေန႔စြဲ: Sep 2008 ေရးသားခ်က္မ်ား: 32 ႏိုင္ငံအလံ: ေက်းဇူးတင္စကား: 4 ပို႔စ္ 11 ခုအတြက္ 43 ဦးမွ ေက်းဇူးတင္ေၾကာင္းေျပာပါသည္။ ျပန္စာ - phython www.python.org ထဲကေန ယူထားတာပါ Python library reference တဲ့ တကယ္ကုိစုံတယ္ ေတာ္ေတာ္ကုိေလ့လာရအုံးမွာ ကြၽမ္းက်င္ဖုိ႔ကုိေလ Python Library Refrence Introduction The Python library'' contains several different kinds of components. It contains data types that would normally be considered part of the core'' of a language, such as numbers and lists. For these types, the Python language core defines the form of literals and places some constraints on their semantics, but does not fully define the semantics. (On the other hand, the language core does define syntactic properties like the spelling and priorities of operators.) The library also contains built-in functions and exceptions -- objects that can be used by all Python code without the need of an import statement. Some of these are defined by the core language, but many are not essential for the core semantics and are only described here. The bulk of the library, however, consists of a collection of modules. There are many ways to dissect this collection. Some modules are written in C and built in to the Python interpreter; others are written in Python and imported in source form. Some modules provide interfaces that are highly specific to Python, like printing a stack trace; some provide interfaces that are specific to particular operating systems, such as access to specific hardware; others provide interfaces that are specific to a particular application domain, like the World Wide Web. Some modules are available in all versions and ports of Python; others are only available when the underlying system supports or requires them; yet others are available only when a particular configuration option was chosen at the time when Python was compiled and installed. This manual is organized from the inside out:'' it first describes the built-in data types, then the built-in functions and exceptions, and finally the modules, grouped in chapters of related modules. The ordering of the chapters as well as the ordering of the modules within each chapter is roughly from most relevant to least important. This means that if you start reading this manual from the start, and skip to the next chapter when you get bored, you will get a reasonable overview of the available modules and application areas that are supported by the Python library. Of course, you don't have to read it like a novel -- you can also browse the table of contents (in front of the manual), or look for a specific function, module or term in the index (in the back). And finally, if you enjoy learning about random subjects, you choose a random page number (see module random) and read a section or two. Regardless of the order in which you read the sections of this manual, it helps to start with chapter 2, Built-in Types, Exceptions and Functions,'' as the remainder of the manual assumes familiarity with this material. Built-in Objects Names for built-in exceptions and functions and a number of constants are found in a separate symbol table. This table is searched last when the interpreter looks up the meaning of a name, so local and global user-defined names can override built-in names. Built-in types are described together here for easy reference.2.1 The tables in this chapter document the priorities of operators by listing them in order of ascending priority (within a table) and grouping operators that have the same priority in the same box. Binary operators of the same priority group from left to right. (Unary operators group from right to left, but there you have no real choice.) See chapter 5 of the Python Reference Manual for the complete picture on operator priorities. Built-in Functions The Python interpreter has a number of functions built into it that are always available. They are listed here in alphabetical order. __import__( name[, globals[, locals[, fromlist[, level]]]]) This function is invoked by the import statement. It mainly exists so that you can replace it with another function that has a compatible interface, in order to change the semantics of the import statement. For examples of why and how you would do this, see the standard library modules ihooks and rexec. See also the built-in module imp, which defines some useful operations out of which you can build your own __import__() function. For example, the statement "import spam" results in the following call: __import__('spam', globals(), locals(), [], -1); the statement "from spam.ham import eggs" results in "__import__('spam.ham', globals(), locals(), ['eggs'], -1)". Note that even though locals() and ['eggs'] are passed in as arguments, the __import__() function does not set the local variable named eggs; this is done by subsequent code that is generated for the import statement. (In fact, the standard implementation does not use its locals argument at all, and uses its globals only to determine the package context of the import statement.) When the name variable is of the form package.module, normally, the top-level package (the name up till the first dot) is returned, not the module named by name. However, when a non-empty fromlist argument is given, the module named by name is returned. This is done for compatibility with the bytecode generated for the different kinds of import statement; when using "import spam.ham.eggs", the top-level package spam must be placed in the importing namespace, but when using "from spam.ham import eggs", the spam.ham subpackage must be used to find the eggs variable. As a workaround for this behavior, use getattr() to extract the desired components. For example, you could define the following helper: def my_import(name): mod = __import__(name) components = name.split('.') for comp in components[1:]: mod = getattr(mod, comp) return mod level specifies whether to use absolute or relative imports. The default is -1 which indicates both absolute and relative imports will be attempted. 0 means only perform absolute imports. Positive values for level indicate the number of parent directories to search relative to the directory of the module calling __import__. Changed in version 2.5: The level parameter was added. Changed in version 2.5: Keyword support for parameters was added. abs( x) Return the absolute value of a number. The argument may be a plain or long integer or a floating point number. If the argument is a complex number, its magnitude is returned. all( iterable) Return True if all elements of the iterable are true. Equivalent to: def all(iterable): for element in iterable: if not element: return False return True New in version 2.5. any( iterable) Return True if any element of the iterable is true. Equivalent to: def any(iterable): for element in iterable: if element: return True return False New in version 2.5. basestring( ) This abstract type is the superclass for str and unicode. It cannot be called or instantiated, but it can be used to test whether an object is an instance of str or unicode. isinstance(obj, basestring) is equivalent to isinstance(obj, (str, unicode)). New in version 2.3. bool( [x]) Convert a value to a Boolean, using the standard truth testing procedure. If x is false or omitted, this returns False; otherwise it returns True. bool is also a class, which is a subclass of int. Class bool cannot be subclassed further. Its only instances are False and True. New in version 2.2.1. Changed in version 2.3: If no argument is given, this function returns False. callable( object) Return true if the object argument appears callable, false if not. If this returns true, it is still possible that a call fails, but if it is false, calling object will never succeed. Note that classes are callable (calling a class returns a new instance); class instances are callable if they have a __call__() method. chr( i) Return a string of one character whose ASCII code is the integer i. For example, chr(97) returns the string 'a'. This is the inverse of ord(). The argument must be in the range [0..255], inclusive; ValueError will be raised if i is outside that range. classmethod( function) Return a class method for function. A class method receives the class as implicit first argument, just like an instance method receives the instance. To declare a class method, use this idiom: class C: @classmethod def f(cls, arg1, arg2, ...): ... The @classmethod form is a function decorator - see the description of function definitions in chapter 7 of the Python Reference Manual for details. It can be called either on the class (such as C.f()) or on an instance (such as C().f()). The instance is ignored except for its class. If a class method is called for a derived class, the derived class object is passed as the implied first argument. Class methods are different than C++ or Java static methods. If you want those, see staticmethod() in this section. For more information on class methods, consult the documentation on the standard type hierarchy in chapter 3 of the Python Reference Manual (at the bottom). New in version 2.2. Changed in version 2.4: Function decorator syntax added. cmp( x, y) Compare the two objects x and y and return an integer according to the outcome. The return value is negative if x < y, zero if x == y and strictly positive if x > y. compile( string, filename, kind[, flags[, dont_inherit]]) Compile the string into a code object. Code objects can be executed by an exec statement or evaluated by a call to eval(). The filename argument should give the file from which the code was read; pass some recognizable value if it wasn't read from a file ('' is commonly used). The kind argument specifies what kind of code must be compiled; it can be 'exec' if string consists of a sequence of statements, 'eval' if it consists of a single expression, or 'single' if it consists of a single interactive statement (in the latter case, expression statements that evaluate to something else than None will be printed). When compiling multi-line statements, two caveats apply: line endings must be represented by a single newline character ('\n'), and the input must be terminated by at least one newline character. If line endings are represented by '\r\n', use the string replace() method to change them into '\n'. The optional arguments flags and dont_inherit (which are new in Python 2.2) control which future statements (see PEP 236) affect the compilation of string. If neither is present (or both are zero) the code is compiled with those future statements that are in effect in the code that is calling compile. If the flags argument is given and dont_inherit is not (or is zero) then the future statements specified by the flags argument are used in addition to those that would be used anyway. If dont_inherit is a non-zero integer then the flags argument is it - the future statements in effect around the call to compile are ignored. Future statements are specified by bits which can be bitwise or-ed together to specify multiple statements. The bitfield required to specify a given feature can be found as the compiler_flag attribute on the _Feature instance in the __future__ module. complex( [real[, imag]]) Create a complex number with the value real + imag*j or convert a string or number to a complex number. If the first parameter is a string, it will be interpreted as a complex number and the function must be called without a second parameter. The second parameter can never be a string. Each argument may be any numeric type (including complex). If imag is omitted, it defaults to zero and the function serves as a numeric conversion function like int(), long() and float(). If both arguments are omitted, returns 0j. delattr( object, name) This is a relative of setattr(). The arguments are an object and a string. The string must be the name of one of the object's attributes. The function deletes the named attribute, provided the object allows it. For example, delattr(x, 'foobar') is equivalent to del x.foobar. dict( [arg]) Return a new dictionary initialized from an optional positional argument or from a set of keyword arguments. If no arguments are given, return a new empty dictionary. If the positional argument arg is a mapping object, return a dictionary mapping the same keys to the same values as does the mapping object. Otherwise the positional argument must be a sequence, a container that supports iteration, or an iterator object. The elements of the argument must each also be of one of those kinds, and each must in turn contain exactly two objects. The first is used as a key in the new dictionary, and the second as the key's value. If a given key is seen more than once, the last value associated with it is retained in the new dictionary. If keyword arguments are given, the keywords themselves with their associated values are added as items to the dictionary. If a key is specified both in the positional argument and as a keyword argument, the value associated with the keyword is retained in the dictionary. For example, these all return a dictionary equal to {"one": 2, "two": 3}: * dict({'one': 2, 'two': 3}) * dict({'one': 2, 'two': 3}.items()) * dict({'one': 2, 'two': 3}.iteritems()) * dict(zip(('one', 'two'), (2, 3))) * dict([['two', 3], ['one', 2]]) * dict(one=2, two=3) * dict([(['one', 'two'][i-2], i) for i in (2, 3)]) New in version 2.2. Changed in version 2.3: Support for building a dictionary from keyword arguments added. dir( [object]) Without arguments, return the list of names in the current local symbol table. With an argument, attempts to return a list of valid attributes for that object. This information is gleaned from the object's __dict__ attribute, if defined, and from the class or type object. The list is not necessarily complete. If the object is a module object, the list contains the names of the module's attributes. If the object is a type or class object, the list contains the names of its attributes, and recursively of the attributes of its bases. Otherwise, the list contains the object's attributes' names, the names of its class's attributes, and recursively of the attributes of its class's base classes. The resulting list is sorted alphabetically. For example: >>> import struct >>> dir() ['__builtins__', '__doc__', '__name__', 'struct'] >>> dir(struct) ['__doc__', '__name__', 'calcsize', 'error', 'pack', 'unpack'] Note: Because dir() is supplied primarily as a convenience for use at an interactive prompt, it tries to supply an interesting set of names more than it tries to supply a rigorously or consistently defined set of names, and its detailed behavior may change across releases. divmod( a, b) Take two (non complex) numbers as arguments and return a pair of numbers consisting of their quotient and remainder when using long division. With mixed operand types, the rules for binary arithmetic operators apply. For plain and long integers, the result is the same as (a // b, a % b). For floating point numbers the result is (q, a % b), where q is usually math.floor(a / b) but may be 1 less than that. In any case q * b + a % b is very close to a, if a % b is non-zero it has the same sign as b, and 0 <= abs(a % b) < abs(b). Changed in version 2.3: Using divmod() with complex numbers is deprecated. enumerate( iterable) Return an enumerate object. iterable must be a sequence, an iterator, or some other object which supports iteration. The next() method of the iterator returned by enumerate() returns a tuple containing a count (from zero) and the corresponding value obtained from iterating over iterable. enumerate() is useful for obtaining an indexed series: (0, seq[0]), (1, seq[1]), (2, seq[2]), .... New in version 2.3. eval( expression[, globals[, locals]]) The arguments are a string and optional globals and locals. If provided, globals must be a dictionary. If provided, locals can be any mapping object. Changed in version 2.4: formerly locals was required to be a dictionary. The expression argument is parsed and evaluated as a Python expression (technically speaking, a condition list) using the globals and locals dictionaries as global and local name space. If the globals dictionary is present and lacks '__builtins__', the current globals are copied into globals before expression is parsed. This means that expression normally has full access to the standard __builtin__ module and restricted environments are propagated. If the locals dictionary is omitted it defaults to the globals dictionary. If both dictionaries are omitted, the expression is executed in the environment where eval is called. The return value is the result of the evaluated expression. Syntax errors are reported as exceptions. Example: >>> x = 1 >>> print eval('x+1') 2 This function can also be used to execute arbitrary code objects (such as those created by compile()). In this case pass a code object instead of a string. The code object must have been compiled passing 'eval' as the kind argument. Hints: dynamic execution of statements is supported by the exec statement. Execution of statements from a file is supported by the execfile() function. The globals() and locals() functions returns the current global and local dictionary, respectively, which may be useful to pass around for use by eval() or execfile(). execfile( filename[, globals[, locals]]) This function is similar to the exec statement, but parses a file instead of a string. It is different from the import statement in that it does not use the module administration -- it reads the file unconditionally and does not create a new module.2.2 The arguments are a file name and two optional dictionaries. The file is parsed and evaluated as a sequence of Python statements (similarly to a module) using the globals and locals dictionaries as global and local namespace. If provided, locals can be any mapping object. Changed in version 2.4: formerly locals was required to be a dictionary. If the locals dictionary is omitted it defaults to the globals dictionary. If both dictionaries are omitted, the expression is executed in the environment where execfile() is called. The return value is None. Warning: The default locals act as described for function locals() below: modifications to the default locals dictionary should not be attempted. Pass an explicit locals dictionary if you need to see effects of the code on locals after function execfile() returns. execfile() cannot be used reliably to modify a function's locals. file( filename[, mode[, bufsize]]) Constructor function for the file type, described further in section 3.9, File Objects''. The constructor's arguments are the same as those of the open() built-in function described below. When opening a file, it's preferable to use open() instead of invoking this constructor directly. file is more suited to type testing (for example, writing "isinstance(f, file)"). New in version 2.2. filter( function, iterable) Construct a list from those elements of iterable for which function returns true. iterable may be either a sequence, a container which supports iteration, or an iterator, If iterable is a string or a tuple, the result also has that type; otherwise it is always a list. If function is None, the identity function is assumed, that is, all elements of iterable that are false are removed. Note that filter(function, iterable) is equivalent to [item for item in iterable if function(item)] if function is not None and [item for item in iterable if item] if function is None. float( [x]) Convert a string or a number to floating point. If the argument is a string, it must contain a possibly signed decimal or floating point number, possibly embedded in whitespace. Otherwise, the argument may be a plain or long integer or a floating point number, and a floating point number with the same value (within Python's floating point precision) is returned. If no argument is given, returns 0.0. Note: When passing in a string, values for NaN and Infinity may be returned, depending on the underlying C library. The specific set of strings accepted which cause these values to be returned depends entirely on the C library and is known to vary. frozenset( [iterable]) Return a frozenset object whose elements are taken from iterable. Frozensets are sets that have no update methods but can be hashed and used as members of other sets or as dictionary keys. The elements of a frozenset must be immutable themselves. To represent sets of sets, the inner sets should also be frozenset objects. If iterable is not specified, returns a new empty set, frozenset([]). New in version 2.4. getattr( object, name[, default]) Return the value of the named attributed of object. name must be a string. If the string is the name of one of the object's attributes, the result is the value of that attribute. For example, getattr(x, 'foobar') is equivalent to x.foobar. If the named attribute does not exist, default is returned if provided, otherwise AttributeError is raised. globals( ) Return a dictionary representing the current global symbol table. This is always the dictionary of the current module (inside a function or method, this is the module where it is defined, not the module from which it is called). hasattr( object, name) The arguments are an object and a string. The result is True if the string is the name of one of the object's attributes, False if not. (This is implemented by calling getattr(object, name) and seeing whether it raises an exception or not.) hash( object) Return the hash value of the object (if it has one). Hash values are integers. They are used to quickly compare dictionary keys during a dictionary lookup. Numeric values that compare equal have the same hash value (even if they are of different types, as is the case for 1 and 1.0). help( [object]) Invoke the built-in help system. (This function is intended for interactive use.) If no argument is given, the interactive help system starts on the interpreter console. If the argument is a string, then the string is looked up as the name of a module, function, class, method, keyword, or documentation topic, and a help page is printed on the console. If the argument is any other kind of object, a help page on the object is generated. New in version 2.2. hex( x) Convert an integer number (of any size) to a hexadecimal string. The result is a valid Python expression. Changed in version 2.4: Formerly only returned an unsigned literal. id( object) Return the identity'' of an object. This is an integer (or long integer) which is guaranteed to be unique and constant for this object during its lifetime. Two objects with non-overlapping lifetimes may have the same id() value. (Implementation note: this is the address of the object.) input( [prompt]) Equivalent to eval(raw_input(prompt)). Warning: This function is not safe from user errors! It expects a valid Python expression as input; if the input is not syntactically valid, a SyntaxError will be raised. Other exceptions may be raised if there is an error during evaluation. (On the other hand, sometimes this is exactly what you need when writing a quick script for expert use.) If the readline module was loaded, then input() will use it to provide elaborate line editing and history features. Consider using the raw_input() function for general input from users. int( [x[, radix]]) Convert a string or number to a plain integer. If the argument is a string, it must contain a possibly signed decimal number representable as a Python integer, possibly embedded in whitespace. The radix parameter gives the base for the conversion (which is 10 by default) and may be any integer in the range [2, 36], or zero. If radix is zero, the proper radix is guessed based on the contents of string; the interpretation is the same as for integer literals. If radix is specified and x is not a string, TypeError is raised. Otherwise, the argument may be a plain or long integer or a floating point number. Conversion of floating point numbers to integers truncates (towards zero). If the argument is outside the integer range a long object will be returned instead. If no arguments are given, returns 0. isinstance( object, classinfo) Return true if the object argument is an instance of the classinfo argument, or of a (direct or indirect) subclass thereof. Also return true if classinfo is a type object (new-style class) and object is an object of that type or of a (direct or indirect) subclass thereof. If object is not a class instance or an object of the given type, the function always returns false. If classinfo is neither a class object nor a type object, it may be a tuple of class or type objects, or may recursively contain other such tuples (other sequence types are not accepted). If classinfo is not a class, type, or tuple of classes, types, and such tuples, a TypeError exception is raised. Changed in version 2.2: Support for a tuple of type information was added. issubclass( class, classinfo) Return true if class is a subclass (direct or indirect) of classinfo. A class is considered a subclass of itself. classinfo may be a tuple of class objects, in which case every entry in classinfo will be checked. In any other case, a TypeError exception is raised. Changed in version 2.3: Support for a tuple of type information was added. iter( o[, sentinel]) Return an iterator object. The first argument is interpreted very differently depending on the presence of the second argument. Without a second argument, o must be a collection object which supports the iteration protocol (the __iter__() method), or it must support the sequence protocol (the __getitem__() method with integer arguments starting at 0). If it does not support either of those protocols, TypeError is raised. If the second argument, sentinel, is given, then o must be a callable object. The iterator created in this case will call o with no arguments for each call to its next() method; if the value returned is equal to sentinel, StopIteration will be raised, otherwise the value will be returned. New in version 2.2. len( s) Return the length (the number of items) of an object. The argument may be a sequence (string, tuple or list) or a mapping (dictionary). list( [iterable]) Return a list whose items are the same and in the same order as iterable's items. iterable may be either a sequence, a container that supports iteration, or an iterator object. If iterable is already a list, a copy is made and returned, similar to iterable[:]. For instance, list('abc') returns ['a', 'b', 'c'] and list( (1, 2, 3) ) returns [1, 2, 3]. If no argument is given, returns a new empty list, []. locals( ) Update and return a dictionary representing the current local symbol table. Warning: The contents of this dictionary should not be modified; changes may not affect the values of local variables used by the interpreter. long( [x[, radix]]) Convert a string or number to a long integer. If the argument is a string, it must contain a possibly signed number of arbitrary size, possibly embedded in whitespace. The radix argument is interpreted in the same way as for int(), and may only be given when x is a string. Otherwise, the argument may be a plain or long integer or a floating point number, and a long integer with the same value is returned. Conversion of floating point numbers to integers truncates (towards zero). If no arguments are given, returns 0L. map( function, iterable, ...) Apply function to every item of iterable and return a list of the results. If additional iterable arguments are passed, function must take that many arguments and is applied to the items from all iterables in parallel. If one iterable is shorter than another it is assumed to be extended with None items. If function is None, the identity function is assumed; if there are multiple arguments, map() returns a list consisting of tuples containing the corresponding items from all iterables (a kind of transpose operation). The iterable arguments may be a sequence or any iterable object; the result is always a list. max( iterable[, args...][key]) With a single argument iterable, return the largest item of a non-empty iterable (such as a string, tuple or list). With more than one argument, return the largest of the arguments. The optional key argument specifies a one-argument ordering function like that used for list.sort(). The key argument, if supplied, must be in keyword form (for example, "max(a,b,c,key=func)"). Changed in version 2.5: Added support for the optional key argument. min( iterable[, args...][key]) With a single argument iterable, return the smallest item of a non-empty iterable (such as a string, tuple or list). With more than one argument, return the smallest of the arguments. The optional key argument specifies a one-argument ordering function like that used for list.sort(). The key argument, if supplied, must be in keyword form (for example, "min(a,b,c,key=func)"). Changed in version 2.5: Added support for the optional key argument. object( ) Return a new featureless object. object is a base for all new style classes. It has the methods that are common to all instances of new style classes. New in version 2.2. Changed in version 2.3: This function does not accept any arguments. Formerly, it accepted arguments but ignored them. oct( x) Convert an integer number (of any size) to an octal string. The result is a valid Python expression. Changed in version 2.4: Formerly only returned an unsigned literal. open( filename[, mode[, bufsize]]) Open a file, returning an object of the file type described in section 3.9, File Objects''. If the file cannot be opened, IOError is raised. When opening a file, it's preferable to use open() instead of invoking the file constructor directly. The first two arguments are the same as for stdio's fopen(): filename is the file name to be opened, and mode is a string indicating how the file is to be opened. The most commonly-used values of mode are 'r' for reading, 'w' for writing (truncating the file if it already exists), and 'a' for appending (which on some Unix systems means that all writes append to the end of the file regardless of the current seek position). If mode is omitted, it defaults to 'r'. When opening a binary file, you should append 'b' to the mode value to open the file in binary mode, which will improve portability. (Appending 'b' is useful even on systems that don't treat binary and text files differently, where it serves as documentation.) See below for more possible values of mode. The optional bufsize argument specifies the file's desired buffer size: 0 means unbuffered, 1 means line buffered, any other positive value means use a buffer of (approximately) that size. A negative bufsize means to use the system default, which is usually line buffered for tty devices and fully buffered for other files. If omitted, the system default is used.2.3 Modes 'r+', 'w+' and 'a+' open the file for updating (note that 'w+' truncates the file). Append 'b' to the mode to open the file in binary mode, on systems that differentiate between binary and text files; on systems that don't have this distinction, adding the 'b' has no effect. In addition to the standard fopen() values mode may be 'U' or 'rU'. Python is usually built with universal newline support; supplying 'U' opens the file as a text file, but lines may be terminated by any of the following: the Unix end-of-line convention '\n', the Macintosh convention '\r', or the Windows convention '\r\n'. All of these external representations are seen as '\n' by the Python program. If Python is built without universal newline support a mode with 'U' is the same as normal text mode. Note that file objects so opened also have an attribute called newlines which has a value of None (if no newlines have yet been seen), '\n', '\r', '\r\n', or a tuple containing all the newline types seen. Python enforces that the mode, after stripping 'U', begins with 'r', 'w' or 'a'. Changed in version 2.5: Restriction on first letter of mode string introduced. ord( c) Given a string of length one, return an integer representing the Unicode code point of the character when the argument is a unicode object, or the value of the byte when the argument is an 8-bit string. For example, ord('a') returns the integer 97, ord(u'\u2020') returns 8224. This is the inverse of chr() for 8-bit strings and of unichr() for unicode objects. If a unicode argument is given and Python was built with UCS2 Unicode, then the character's code point must be in the range [0..65535] inclusive; otherwise the string length is two, and a TypeError will be raised. pow( x, y[, z]) Return x to the power y; if z is present, return x to the power y, modulo z (computed more efficiently than pow(x, y) % z). The two-argument form pow(x, y) is equivalent to using the power operator: x**y. The arguments must have numeric types. With mixed operand types, the coercion rules for binary arithmetic operators apply. For int and long int operands, the result has the same type as the operands (after coercion) unless the second argument is negative; in that case, all arguments are converted to float and a float result is delivered. For example, 10**2 returns 100, but 10**-2 returns 0.01. (This last feature was added in Python 2.2. In Python 2.1 and before, if both arguments were of integer types and the second argument was negative, an exception was raised.) If the second argument is negative, the third argument must be omitted. If z is present, x and y must be of integer types, and y must be non-negative. (This restriction was added in Python 2.2. In Python 2.1 and before, floating 3-argument pow() returned platform-dependent results depending on floating-point rounding accidents.) property( [fget[, fset[, fdel[, doc]]]]) Return a property attribute for new-style classes (classes that derive from object). fget is a function for getting an attribute value, likewise fset is a function for setting, and fdel a function for del'ing, an attribute. Typical use is to define a managed attribute x: class C(object): def __init__(self): self._x = None def getx(self): return self._x def setx(self, value): self._x = value def delx(self): del self._x x = property(getx, setx, delx, "I'm the 'x' property.") If given, doc will be the docstring of the property attribute. Otherwise, the property will copy fget's docstring (if it exists). This makes it possible to create read-only properties easily using property() as a decorator: class Parrot(object): def __init__(self): self._voltage = 100000 @property def voltage(self): """Get the current voltage.""" return self._voltage turns the voltage() method into a getter'' for a read-only attribute with the same name. New in version 2.2. Changed in version 2.5: Use fget's docstring if no doc given. range( [start,] stop[, step]) This is a versatile function to create lists containing arithmetic progressions. It is most often used in for loops. The arguments must be plain integers. If the step argument is omitted, it defaults to 1. If the start argument is omitted, it defaults to 0. The full form returns a list of plain integers [start, start + step, start + 2 * step, ...]. If step is positive, the last element is the largest start + i * step less than stop; if step is negative, the last element is the smallest start + i * step greater than stop. step must not be zero (or else ValueError is raised). Example: >>> range(10) [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9] >>> range(1, 11) [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10] >>> range(0, 30, 5) [0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25] >>> range(0, 10, 3) [0, 3, 6, 9] >>> range(0, -10, -1) [0, -1, -2, -3, -4, -5, -6, -7, -8, -9] >>> range(0) [] >>> range(1, 0) [] raw_input( [prompt]) If the prompt argument is present, it is written to standard output without a trailing newline. The function then reads a line from input, converts it to a string (stripping a trailing newline), and returns that. When EOF is read, EOFError is raised. Example: >>> s = raw_input('--> ') --> Monty Python's Flying Circus >>> s "Monty Python's Flying Circus" If the readline module was loaded, then raw_input() will use it to provide elaborate line editing and history features. reduce( function, iterable[, initializer]) Apply function of two arguments cumulatively to the items of iterable, from left to right, so as to reduce the iterable to a single value. For example, reduce(lambda x, y: x+y, [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]) calculates ((((1+2)+3)+4)+5). The left argument, x, is the accumulated value and the right argument, y, is the update value from the iterable. If the optional initializer is present, it is placed before the items of the iterable in the calculation, and serves as a default when the iterable is empty. If initializer is not given and iterable contains only one item, the first item is returned. reload( module) Reload a previously imported module. The argument must be a module object, so it must have been successfully imported before. This is useful if you have edited the module source file using an external editor and want to try out the new version without leaving the Python interpreter. The return value is the module object (the same as the module argument). When reload(module) is executed: * Python modules' code is recompiled and the module-level code reexecuted, defining a new set of objects which are bound to names in the module's dictionary. The init function of extension modules is not called a second time. * As with all other objects in Python the old objects are only reclaimed after their reference counts drop to zero. * The names in the module namespace are updated to point to any new or changed objects. * Other references to the old objects (such as names external to the module) are not rebound to refer to the new objects and must be updated in each namespace where they occur if that is desired. There are a number of other caveats: If a module is syntactically correct but its initialization fails, the first import statement for it does not bind its name locally, but does store a (partially initialized) module object in sys.modules. To reload the module you must first import it again (this will bind the name to the partially initialized module object) before you can reload() it. When a module is reloaded, its dictionary (containing the module's global variables) is retained. Redefinitions of names will override the old definitions, so this is generally not a problem. If the new version of a module does not define a name that was defined by the old version, the old definition remains. This feature can be used to the module's advantage if it maintains a global table or cache of objects -- with a try statement it can test for the table's presence and skip its initialization if desired: try: cache except NameError: cache = {} It is legal though generally not very useful to reload built-in or dynamically loaded modules, except for sys, __main__ and __builtin__. In many cases, however, extension modules are not designed to be initialized more than once, and may fail in arbitrary ways when reloaded. If a module imports objects from another module using from ... import ..., calling reload() for the other module does not redefine the objects imported from it -- one way around this is to re-execute the from statement, another is to use import and qualified names (module.name) instead. If a module instantiates instances of a class, reloading the module that defines the class does not affect the method definitions of the instances -- they continue to use the old class definition. The same is true for derived classes. repr( object) Return a string containing a printable representation of an object. This is the same value yielded by conversions (reverse quotes). It is sometimes useful to be able to access this operation as an ordinary function. For many types, this function makes an attempt to return a string that would yield an object with the same value when passed to eval(). reversed( seq) Return a reverse iterator. seq must be an object which supports the sequence protocol (the __len__() method and the __getitem__() method with integer arguments starting at 0). New in version 2.4. round( x[, n]) Return the floating point value x rounded to n digits after the decimal point. If n is omitted, it defaults to zero. The result is a floating point number. Values are rounded to the closest multiple of 10 to the power minus n; if two multiples are equally close, rounding is done away from 0 (so. for example, round(0.5) is 1.0 and round(-0.5) is -1.0). set( [iterable]) Return a set whose elements are taken from iterable. The elements must be immutable. To represent sets of sets, the inner sets should be frozenset objects. If iterable is not specified, returns a new empty set, set([]). New in version 2.4. setattr( object, name, value) This is the counterpart of getattr(). The arguments are an object, a string and an arbitrary value. The string may name an existing attribute or a new attribute. The function assigns the value to the attribute, provided the object allows it. For example, setattr(x, 'foobar', 123) is equivalent to x.foobar = 123. slice( [start,] stop[, step]) Return a slice object representing the set of indices specified by range(start, stop, step). The start and step arguments default to None. Slice objects have read-only data attributes start, stop and step which merely return the argument values (or their default). They have no other explicit functionality; however they are used by Numerical Python and other third party extensions. Slice objects are also generated when extended indexing syntax is used. For example: "a[start:stop:step]" or "a[start:stop, i]". sorted( iterable[, cmp[, key[, reverse]]]) Return a new sorted list from the items in iterable. The optional arguments cmp, key, and reverse have the same meaning as those for the list.sort() method (described in section 3.6.4). cmp specifies a custom comparison function of two arguments (iterable elements) which should return a negative, zero or positive number depending on whether the first argument is considered smaller than, equal to, or larger than the second argument: "cmp=lambda x,y: cmp(x.lower(), y.lower())" key specifies a function of one argument that is used to extract a comparison key from each list element: "key=str.lower" reverse is a boolean value. If set to True, then the list elements are sorted as if each comparison were reversed. In general, the key and reverse conversion processes are much faster than specifying an equivalent cmp function. This is because cmp is called multiple times for each list element while key and reverse touch each element only once. New in version 2.4. staticmethod( function) Return a static method for function. A static method does not receive an implicit first argument. To declare a static method, use this idiom: class C: @staticmethod def f(arg1, arg2, ...): ... The @staticmethod form is a function decorator - see the description of function definitions in chapter 7 of the Python Reference Manual for details. It can be called either on the class (such as C.f()) or on an instance (such as C().f()). The instance is ignored except for its class. Static methods in Python are similar to those found in Java or C++. For a more advanced concept, see classmethod() in this section. For more information on static methods, consult the documentation on the standard type hierarchy in chapter 3 of the Python Reference Manual (at the bottom). New in version 2.2. Changed in version 2.4: Function decorator syntax added. str( [object]) Return a string containing a nicely printable representation of an object. For strings, this returns the string itself. The difference with repr(object) is that str(object) does not always attempt to return a string that is acceptable to eval(); its goal is to return a printable string. If no argument is given, returns the empty string, ''. sum( iterable[, start]) Sums start and the items of an iterable from left to right and returns the total. start defaults to 0. The iterable's items are normally numbers, and are not allowed to be strings. The fast, correct way to concatenate a sequence of strings is by calling ''.join(sequence). Note that sum(range(n), m) is equivalent to reduce(operator.add, range(n), m) New in version 2.3. super( type[, object-or-type]) Return the superclass of type. If the second argument is omitted the super object returned is unbound. If the second argument is an object, isinstance(obj, type) must be true. If the second argument is a type, issubclass(type2, type) must be true. super() only works for new-style classes. A typical use for calling a cooperative superclass method is: class C(B): def meth(self, arg): super(C, self).meth(arg) Note that super is implemented as part of the binding process for explicit dotted attribute lookups such as "super(C, self).__getitem__(name)". Accordingly, super is undefined for implicit lookups using statements or operators such as "super(C, self)[name]". New in version 2.2. tuple( [iterable]) Return a tuple whose items are the same and in the same order as iterable's items. iterable may be a sequence, a container that supports iteration, or an iterator object. If iterable is already a tuple, it is returned unchanged. For instance, tuple('abc') returns ('a', 'b', 'c') and tuple([1, 2, 3]) returns (1, 2, 3). If no argument is given, returns a new empty tuple, (). type( object) Return the type of an object. The return value is a type object. The isinstance() built-in function is recommended for testing the type of an object. With three arguments, type functions as a constructor as detailed below. type( name, bases, dict) Return a new type object. This is essentially a dynamic form of the class statement. The name string is the class name and becomes the __name__ attribute; the bases tuple itemizes the base classes and becomes the __bases__ attribute; and the dict dictionary is the namespace containing definitions for class body and becomes the __dict__ attribute. For example, the following two statements create identical type objects: >>> class X(object): ... a = 1 ... >>> X = type('X', (object,), dict(a=1)) New in version 2.2. unichr( i) Return the Unicode string of one character whose Unicode code is the integer i. For example, unichr(97) returns the string u'a'. This is the inverse of ord() for Unicode strings. The valid range for the argument depends how Python was configured - it may be either UCS2 [0..0xFFFF] or UCS4 [0..0x10FFFF]. ValueError is raised otherwise. New in version 2.0. unicode( [object[, encoding [, errors]]]) Return the Unicode string version of object using one of the following modes: If encoding and/or errors are given, unicode() will decode the object which can either be an 8-bit string or a character buffer using the codec for encoding. The encoding parameter is a string giving the name of an encoding; if the encoding is not known, LookupError is raised. Error handling is done according to errors; this specifies the treatment of characters which are invalid in the input encoding. If errors is 'strict' (the default), a ValueError is raised on errors, while a value of 'ignore' causes errors to be silently ignored, and a value of 'replace' causes the official Unicode replacement character, U+FFFD, to be used to replace input characters which cannot be decoded. See also the codecs module. If no optional parameters are given, unicode() will mimic the behaviour of str() except that it returns Unicode strings instead of 8-bit strings. More precisely, if object is a Unicode string or subclass it will return that Unicode string without any additional decoding applied. For objects which provide a __unicode__() method, it will call this method without arguments to create a Unicode string. For all other objects, the 8-bit string version or representation is requested and then converted to a Unicode string using the codec for the default encoding in 'strict' mode. New in version 2.0. Changed in version 2.2: Support for __unicode__() added. vars( [object]) Without arguments, return a dictionary corresponding to the current local symbol table. With a module, class or class instance object as argument (or anything else that has a __dict__ attribute), returns a dictionary corresponding to the object's symbol table. The returned dictionary should not be modified: the effects on the corresponding symbol table are undefined.2.4 xrange( [start,] stop[, step]) This function is very similar to range(), but returns an xrange object'' instead of a list. This is an opaque sequence type which yields the same values as the corresponding list, without actually storing them all simultaneously. The advantage of xrange() over range() is minimal (since xrange() still has to create the values when asked for them) except when a very large range is used on a memory-starved machine or when all of the range's elements are never used (such as when the loop is usually terminated with break). Note: xrange() is intended to be simple and fast. Implementations may impose restrictions to achieve this. The C implementation of Python restricts all arguments to native C longs ("short" Python integers), and also requires that the number of elements fit in a native C long. zip( [iterable, ...]) This function returns a list of tuples, where the i-th tuple contains the i-th element from each of the argument sequences or iterables. The returned list is truncated in length to the length of the shortest argument sequence. When there are multiple arguments which are all of the same length, zip() is similar to map() with an initial argument of None. With a single sequence argument, it returns a list of 1-tuples. With no arguments, it returns an empty list. New in version 2.0. Changed in version 2.4: Formerly, zip() required at least one argument and zip() raised a TypeError instead of returning an empty list. Non-essential Buitl-in Functions There are several built-in functions that are no longer essential to learn, know or use in modern Python programming. They have been kept here to maintain backwards compatibility with programs written for older versions of Python. Python programmers, trainers, students and bookwriters should feel free to bypass these functions without concerns about missing something important. apply( function, args[, keywords]) The function argument must be a callable object (a user-defined or built-in function or method, or a class object) and the args argument must be a sequence. The function is called with args as the argument list; the number of arguments is the length of the tuple. If the optional keywords argument is present, it must be a dictionary whose keys are strings. It specifies keyword arguments to be added to the end of the argument list. Calling apply() is different from just calling function(args), since in that case there is always exactly one argument. The use of apply() is exactly equivalent to function(*args, **keywords). Deprecated since release 2.3. Use the extended call syntax with *args and **keywords instead. buffer( object[, offset[, size]]) The object argument must be an object that supports the buffer call interface (such as strings, arrays, and buffers). A new buffer object will be created which references the object argument. The buffer object will be a slice from the beginning of object (or from the specified offset). The slice will extend to the end of object (or will have a length given by the size argument). coerce( x, y) Return a tuple consisting of the two numeric arguments converted to a common type, using the same rules as used by arithmetic operations. If coercion is not possible, raise TypeError. intern( string) Enter string in the table of interned'' strings and return the interned string - which is string itself or a copy. Interning strings is useful to gain a little performance on dictionary lookup - if the keys in a dictionary are interned, and the lookup key is interned, the key comparisons (after hashing) can be done by a pointer compare instead of a string compare. Normally, the names used in Python programs are automatically interned, and the dictionaries used to hold module, class or instance attributes have interned keys. Changed in version 2.3: Interned strings are not immortal (like they used to be in Python 2.2 and before); you must keep a reference to the return value of intern() around to benefit from it. Built-in Exceptions Exceptions should be class objects. The exceptions are defined in the module exceptions. This module never needs to be imported explicitly: the exceptions are provided in the built-in namespace as well as the exceptions module. Note: In past versions of Python string exceptions were supported. In Python 1.5 and newer versions, all standard exceptions have been converted to class objects and users are encouraged to do the same. String exceptions will raise a DeprecationWarning in Python 2.5 and newer. In future versions, support for string exceptions will be removed. Two distinct string objects with the same value are considered different exceptions. This is done to force programmers to use exception names rather than their string value when specifying exception handlers. The string value of all built-in exceptions is their name, but this is not a requirement for user-defined exceptions or exceptions defined by library modules. For class exceptions, in a try statement with an except clause that mentions a particular class, that clause also handles any exception classes derived from that class (but not exception classes from which it is derived). Two exception classes that are not related via subclassing are never equivalent, even if they have the same name. The built-in exceptions listed below can be generated by the interpreter or built-in functions. Except where mentioned, they have an associated value'' indicating the detailed cause of the error. This may be a string or a tuple containing several items of information (e.g., an error code and a string explaining the code). The associated value is the second argument to the raise statement. For string exceptions, the associated value itself will be stored in the variable named as the second argument of the except clause (if any). For class exceptions, that variable receives the exception instance. If the exception class is derived from the standard root class BaseException, the associated value is present as the exception instance's args attribute. If there is a single argument (as is preferred), it is bound to the message attribute. User code can raise built-in exceptions. This can be used to test an exception handler or to report an error condition just like'' the situation in which the interpreter raises the same exception; but beware that there is nothing to prevent user code from raising an inappropriate error. The built-in exception classes can be sub-classed to define new exceptions; programmers are encouraged to at least derive new exceptions from the Exception class and not BaseException. More information on defining exceptions is available in the Python Tutorial under the heading User-defined Exceptions.'' The following exceptions are only used as base classes for other exceptions. exception BaseException The base class for all built-in exceptions. It is not meant to be directly inherited by user-defined classes (for that use Exception). If str() or unicode() is called on an instance of this class, the representation of the argument(s) to the instance are returned or the emptry string when there were no arguments. If only a single argument is passed in, it is stored in the message attribute. If more than one argument is passed in, message is set to the empty string. These semantics are meant to reflect the fact that message is to store a text message explaining why the exception had been raised. If more data needs to be attached to the exception, attach it through arbitrary attributes on the instance. All arguments are also stored in args as a tuple, but it will eventually be deprecated and thus its use is discouraged. New in version 2.5. exception Exception All built-in, non-system-exiting exceptions are derived from this class. All user-defined exceptions should also be derived from this class. Changed in version 2.5: Changed to inherit from BaseException. exception StandardError The base class for all built-in exceptions except StopIteration, GeneratorExit, KeyboardInterrupt and SystemExit. StandardError itself is derived from Exception. exception ArithmeticError The base class for those built-in exceptions that are raised for various arithmetic errors: OverflowError, ZeroDivisionError, FloatingPointError. exception LookupError The base class for the exceptions that are raised when a key or index used on a mapping or sequence is invalid: IndexError, KeyError. This can be raised directly by sys.setdefaultencoding(). exception EnvironmentError The base class for exceptions that can occur outside the Python system: IOError, OSError. When exceptions of this type are created with a 2-tuple, the first item is available on the instance's errno attribute (it is assumed to be an error number), and the second item is available on the strerror attribute (it is usually the associated error message). The tuple itself is also available on the args attribute. New in version 1.5.2. When an EnvironmentError exception is instantiated with a 3-tuple, the first two items are available as above, while the third item is available on the filename attribute. However, for backwards compatibility, the args attribute contains only a 2-tuple of the first two constructor arguments. The filename attribute is None when this exception is created with other than 3 arguments. The errno and strerror attributes are also None when the instance was created with other than 2 or 3 arguments. In this last case, args contains the verbatim constructor arguments as a tuple. The following exceptions are the exceptions that are actually raised. exception AssertionError Raised when an assert statement fails. exception AttributeError Raised when an attribute reference or assignment fails. (When an object does not support attribute references or attribute assignments at all, TypeError is raised.) exception EOFError Raised when one of the built-in functions (input() or raw_input()) hits an end-of-file condition (EOF) without reading any data. (N.B.: the read() and readline() methods of file objects return an empty string when they hit EOF.) exception FloatingPointError Raised when a floating point operation fails. This exception is always defined, but can only be raised when Python is configured with the --with-fpectl option, or the WANT_SIGFPE_HANDLER symbol is defined in the pyconfig.h file. exception GeneratorExit Raise when a generator's close() method is called. It directly inherits from Exception instead of StandardError since it is technically not an error. New in version 2.5. exception IOError Raised when an I/O operation (such as a print statement, the built-in open() function or a method of a file object) fails for an I/O-related reason, e.g., file not found'' or disk full''. This class is derived from EnvironmentError. See the discussion above for more information on exception instance attributes. exception ImportError Raised when an import statement fails to find the module definition or when a from ... import fails to find a name that is to be imported. exception IndexError Raised when a sequence subscript is out of range. (Slice indices are silently truncated to fall in the allowed range; if an index is not a plain integer, TypeError is raised.) exception KeyError Raised when a mapping (dictionary) key is not found in the set of existing keys. exception KeyboardInterrupt Raised when the user hits the interrupt key (normally Control-C or Delete). During execution, a check for interrupts is made regularly. Interrupts typed when a built-in function input() or raw_input() is waiting for input also raise this exception. The exception inherits from BaseException so as to not be accidentally caught by code that catches Exception and thus prevent the interpreter from exiting. Changed in version 2.5: Changed to inherit from BaseException. exception MemoryError Raised when an operation runs out of memory but the situation may still be rescued (by deleting some objects). The associated value is a string indicating what kind of (internal) operation ran out of memory. Note that because of the underlying memory management architecture (C's malloc() function), the interpreter may not always be able to completely recover from this situation; it nevertheless raises an exception so that a stack traceback can be printed, in case a run-away program was the cause. exception NameError Raised when a local or global name is not found. This applies only to unqualified names. The associated value is an error message that includes the name that could not be found. exception NotImplementedError This exception is derived from RuntimeError. In user defined base classes, abstract methods should raise this exception when they require derived classes to override the method. New in version 1.5.2. exception OSError This class is derived from EnvironmentError and is used primarily as the os module's os.error exception. See EnvironmentError above for a description of the possible associated values. New in version 1.5.2. exception OverflowError Raised when the result of an arithmetic operation is too large to be represented. This cannot occur for long integers (which would rather raise MemoryError than give up). Because of the lack of standardization of floating point exception handling in C, most floating point operations also aren't checked. For plain integers, all operations that can overflow are checked except left shift, where typical applications prefer to drop bits than raise an exception. exception ReferenceError This exception is raised when a weak reference proxy, created by the weakref.proxy() function, is used to access an attribute of the referent after it has been garbage collected. For more information on weak references, see the weakref module. New in version 2.2: Previously known as the weakref.ReferenceError exception. exception RuntimeError Raised when an error is detected that doesn't fall in any of the other categories. The associated value is a string indicating what precisely went wrong. (This exception is mostly a relic from a previous version of the interpreter; it is not used very much any more.) exception StopIteration Raised by an iterator's next() method to signal that there are no further values. This is derived from Exception rather than StandardError, since this is not considered an error in its normal application. New in version 2.2. exception SyntaxError Raised when the parser encounters a syntax error. This may occur in an import statement, in an exec statement, in a call to the built-in function eval() or input(), or when reading the initial script or standard input (also interactively). Instances of this class have attributes filename, lineno, offset and text for easier access to the details. str() of the exception instance returns only the message. exception SystemError Raised when the interpreter finds an internal error, but the situation does not look so serious to cause it to abandon all hope. The associated value is a string indicating what went wrong (in low-level terms). You should report this to the author or maintainer of your Python interpreter. Be sure to report the version of the Python interpreter (sys.version; it is also printed at the start of an interactive Python session), the exact error message (the exception's associated value) and if possible the source of the program that triggered the error. exception SystemExit This exception is raised by the sys.exit() function. When it is not handled, the Python interpreter exits; no stack traceback is printed. If the associated value is a plain integer, it specifies the system exit status (passed to C's exit() function); if it is None, the exit status is zero; if it has another type (such as a string), the object's value is printed and the exit status is one. Instances have an attribute code which is set to the proposed exit status or error message (defaulting to None). Also, this exception derives directly from BaseException and not StandardError, since it is not technically an error. A call to sys.exit() is translated into an exception so that clean-up handlers (finally clauses of try statements) can be executed, and so that a debugger can execute a script without running the risk of losing control. The os._exit() function can be used if it is absolutely positively necessary to exit immediately (for example, in the child process after a call to fork()). The exception inherits from BaseException instead of StandardError or Exception so that it is not accidentally caught by code that catches Exception. This allows the exception to properly propagate up and cause the interpreter to exit. Changed in version 2.5: Changed to inherit from BaseException. exception TypeError Raised when an operation or function is applied to an object of inappropriate type. The associated value is a string giving details about the type mismatch. exception UnboundLocalError Raised when a reference is made to a local variable in a function or method, but no value has been bound to that variable. This is a subclass of NameError. New in version 2.0. exception UnicodeError Raised when a Unicode-related encoding or decoding error occurs. It is a subclass of ValueError. New in version 2.0. exception UnicodeEncodeError Raised when a Unicode-related error occurs during encoding. It is a subclass of UnicodeError. New in version 2.3. exception UnicodeDecodeError Raised when a Unicode-related error occurs during decoding. It is a subclass of UnicodeError. New in version 2.3. exception UnicodeTranslateError Raised when a Unicode-related error occurs during translating. It is a subclass of UnicodeError. New in version 2.3. exception ValueError Raised when a built-in operation or function receives an argument that has the right type but an inappropriate value, and the situation is not described by a more precise exception such as IndexError. exception WindowsError Raised when a Windows-specific error occurs or when the error number does not correspond to an errno value. The winerror and strerror values are created from the return values of the GetLastError() and FormatMessage() functions from the Windows Platform API. The errno value maps the winerror value to corresponding errno.h values. This is a subclass of OSError. New in version 2.0. Changed in version 2.5: Previous versions put the GetLastError() codes into errno. exception ZeroDivisionError Raised when the second argument of a division or modulo operation is zero. The associated value is a string indicating the type of the operands and the operation. The following exceptions are used as warning categories; see the warnings module for more information. exception Warning Base class for warning categories. exception UserWarning Base class for warnings generated by user code. exception DeprecationWarning Base class for warnings about deprecated features. exception PendingDeprecationWarning Base class for warnings about features which will be deprecated in the future. exception SyntaxWarning Base class for warnings about dubious syntax exception RuntimeWarning Base class for warnings about dubious runtime behavior. exception FutureWarning Base class for warnings about constructs that will change semantically in the future. exception ImportWarning Base class for warnings about probable mistakes in module imports. New in version 2.5. exception UnicodeWarning Base class for warnings related to Unicode. New in version 2.5. The class hierarchy for built-in exceptions is: BaseException +-- SystemExit +-- KeyboardInterrupt +-- Exception +-- GeneratorExit +-- StopIteration +-- StandardError | +-- ArithmeticError | | +-- FloatingPointError | | +-- OverflowError | | +-- ZeroDivisionError | +-- AssertionError | +-- AttributeError | +-- EnvironmentError | | +-- IOError | | +-- OSError | | +-- WindowsError (Windows) | | +-- VMSError (VMS) | +-- EOFError | +-- ImportError | +-- LookupError | | +-- IndexError | | +-- KeyError | +-- MemoryError | +-- NameError | | +-- UnboundLocalError | +-- ReferenceError | +-- RuntimeError | | +-- NotImplementedError | +-- SyntaxError | | +-- IndentationError | | +-- TabError | +-- SystemError | +-- TypeError | +-- ValueError | | +-- UnicodeError | | +-- UnicodeDecodeError | | +-- UnicodeEncodeError | | +-- UnicodeTranslateError +-- Warning +-- DeprecationWarning +-- PendingDeprecationWarning +-- RuntimeWarning +-- SyntaxWarning +-- UserWarning +-- FutureWarning +-- ImportWarning +-- UnicodeWarning Built-in Types 2.4 Built-in Constants A small number of constants live in the built-in namespace. They are: False The false value of the bool type. New in version 2.3. True The true value of the bool type. New in version 2.3. None The sole value of types.NoneType. None is frequently used to represent the absence of a value, as when default arguments are not passed to a function. NotImplemented Special value which can be returned by the rich comparison'' special methods (__eq__(), __lt__(), and friends), to indicate that the comparison is not implemented with respect to the other type. Ellipsis Special value used in conjunction with extended slicing syntax. 3.1 Truth Value Testing Any object can be tested for truth value, for use in an if or while condition or as operand of the Boolean operations below. The following values are considered false: * None * False * zero of any numeric type, for example, 0, 0L, 0.0, 0j. * any empty sequence, for example, '', (), []. * any empty mapping, for example, {}. * instances of user-defined classes, if the class defines a __nonzero__() or __len__() method, when that method returns the integer zero or bool value False.3.1 All other values are considered true -- so objects of many types are always true. Operations and built-in functions that have a Boolean result always return 0 or False for false and 1 or True for true, unless otherwise stated. (Important exception: the Boolean operations "or" and "and" always return one of their operands.) 3.2 Boolean Operations -- and, or, not These are the Boolean operations, ordered by ascending priority: Operation Result Notes x or y if x is false, then y, else x (1) x and y if x is false, then x, else y (1) not x if x is false, then True, else False (2) Notes: (1) These only evaluate their second argument if needed for their outcome. (2) "not" has a lower priority than non-Boolean operators, so not a == b is interpreted as not (a == b), and a == not b is a syntax error. 3.3 Comparisons Comparison operations are supported by all objects. They all have the same priority (which is higher than that of the Boolean operations). Comparisons can be chained arbitrarily; for example, x < y <= z is equivalent to x < y and y <= z, except that y is evaluated only once (but in both cases z is not evaluated at all when x < y is found to be false). This table summarizes the comparison operations: Operation Meaning Notes < strictly less than <= less than or equal > strictly greater than >= greater than or equal == equal != not equal (1) <> not equal (1) is object identity is not negated object identity Notes: (1) <> and != are alternate spellings for the same operator. != is the preferred spelling; <> is obsolescent. Objects of different types, except different numeric types and different string types, never compare equal; such objects are ordered consistently but arbitrarily (so that sorting a heterogeneous array yields a consistent result). Furthermore, some types (for example, file objects) support only a degenerate notion of comparison where any two objects of that type are unequal. Again, such objects are ordered arbitrarily but consistently. The <, <=, > and >= operators will raise a TypeError exception when any operand is a complex number. Instances of a class normally compare as non-equal unless the class defines the __cmp__() method. Refer to the Python Reference Manual for information on the use of this method to effect object comparisons. Implementation note: Objects of different types except numbers are ordered by their type names; objects of the same types that don't support proper comparison are ordered by their address. Two more operations with the same syntactic priority, "in" and "not in", are supported only by sequence types (below). 3.4 Numeric Types -- int, float, long, complex There are four distinct numeric types: plain integers, long integers, floating point numbers, and complex numbers. In addition, Booleans are a subtype of plain integers. Plain integers (also just called integers) are implemented using long in C, which gives them at least 32 bits of precision (sys.maxint is always set to the maximum plain integer value for the current platform, the minimum value is -sys.maxint - 1). Long integers have unlimited precision. Floating point numbers are implemented using double in C. All bets on their precision are off unless you happen to know the machine you are working with. Complex numbers have a real and imaginary part, which are each implemented using double in C. To extract these parts from a complex number z, use z.real and z.imag. Numbers are created by numeric literals or as the result of built-in functions and operators. Unadorned integer literals (including hex and octal numbers) yield plain integers unless the value they denote is too large to be represented as a plain integer, in which case they yield a long integer. Integer literals with an "L" or "l" suffix yield long integers ("L" is preferred because "1l" looks too much like eleven!). Numeric literals containing a decimal point or an exponent sign yield floating point numbers. Appending "j" or "J" to a numeric literal yields a complex number with a zero real part. A complex numeric literal is the sum of a real and an imaginary part. Python fully supports mixed arithmetic: when a binary arithmetic operator has operands of different numeric types, the operand with the narrower'' type is widened to that of the other, where plain integer is narrower than long integer is narrower than floating point is narrower than complex. Comparisons between numbers of mixed type use the same rule.3.2 The constructors int(), long(), float(), and complex() can be used to produce numbers of a specific type. All numeric types (except complex) support the following operations, sorted by ascending priority (operations in the same box have the same priority; all numeric operations have a higher priority than comparison operations): Operation Result Notes x + y sum of x and y x - y difference of x and y x * y product of x and y x / y quotient of x and y (1) x // y (floored) quotient of x and y (5) x % y remainder of x / y (4) -x x negated +x x unchanged abs(x) absolute value or magnitude of x int(x) x converted to integer (2) long(x) x converted to long integer (2) float(x) x converted to floating point complex(re,im) a complex number with real part re, imaginary part im. im defaults to zero. c.conjugate() conjugate of the complex number c divmod(x, y) the pair (x // y, x % y) (3)(4) pow(x, y) x to the power y x ** y x to the power y Notes: (1) For (plain or long) integer division, the result is an integer. The result is always rounded towards minus infinity: 1/2 is 0, (-1)/2 is -1, 1/(-2) is -1, and (-1)/(-2) is 0. Note that the result is a long integer if either operand is a long integer, regardless of the numeric value. (2) Conversion from floating point to (long or plain) integer may round or truncate as in C; see functions floor() and ceil() in the math module for well-defined conversions. (3) See section 2.1, Built-in Functions,'' for a full description. (4) Complex floor division operator, modulo operator, and divmod(). Deprecated since release 2.3. Instead convert to float using abs() if appropriate. (5) Also referred to as integer division. The resultant value is a whole integer, though the result's type is not necessarily int. 3.4.1 Bit-string Operations on Integer Types Plain and long integer types support additional operations that make sense only for bit-strings. Negative numbers are treated as their 2's complement value (for long integers, this assumes a sufficiently large number of bits that no overflow occurs during the operation). The priorities of the binary bit-wise operations are all lower than the numeric operations and higher than the comparisons; the unary operation "~" has the same priority as the other unary numeric operations ("+" and "-"). This table lists the bit-string operations sorted in ascending priority (operations in the same box have the same priority): Operation Result Notes x | y bitwise or of x and y x ^ y bitwise exclusive or of x and y x & y bitwise and of x and y x << n x shifted left by n bits (1), (2) x >> n x shifted right by n bits (1), (3) ~x the bits of x inverted Notes: (1) Negative shift counts are illegal and cause a ValueError to be raised. (2) A left shift by n bits is equivalent to multiplication by pow(2, n) without overflow check. (3) A right shift by n bits is equivalent to division by pow(2, n) without overflow check. 3.5 Iterator Types New in version 2.2. Python supports a concept of iteration over containers. This is implemented using two distinct methods; these are used to allow user-defined classes to support iteration. Sequences, described below in more detail, always support the iteration methods. One method needs to be defined for container objects to provide iteration support: __iter__( ) Return an iterator object. The object is required to support the iterator protocol described below. If a container supports different types of iteration, additional methods can be provided to specifically request iterators for those iteration types. (An example of an object supporting multiple forms of iteration would be a tree structure which supports both breadth-first and depth-first traversal.) This method corresponds to the tp_iter slot of the type structure for Python objects in the Python/C API. The iterator objects themselves are required to support the following two methods, which together form the iterator protocol: __iter__( ) Return the iterator object itself. This is required to allow both containers and iterators to be used with the for and in statements. This method corresponds to the tp_iter slot of the type structure for Python objects in the Python/C API. next( ) Return the next item from the container. If there are no further items, raise the StopIteration exception. This method corresponds to the tp_iternext slot of the type structure for Python objects in the Python/C API. Python defines several iterator objects to support iteration over general and specific sequence types, dictionaries, and other more specialized forms. The specific types are not important beyond their implementation of the iterator protocol. The intention of the protocol is that once an iterator's next() method raises StopIteration, it will continue to do so on subsequent calls. Implementations that do not obey this property are deemed broken. (This constraint was added in Python 2.3; in Python 2.2, various iterators are broken according to this rule.) Python's generators provide a convenient way to implement the iterator protocol. If a container object's __iter__() method is implemented as a generator, it will automatically return an iterator object (technically, a generator object) supplying the __iter__() and next() methods. 3.6 Sequence Types -- str, unicode, list, tuple, buffer, xrange There are six sequence types: strings, Unicode strings, lists, tuples, buffers, and xrange objects. String literals are written in single or double quotes: 'xyzzy', "frobozz". See chapter 2 of the Python Reference Manual for more about string literals. Unicode strings are much like strings, but are specified in the syntax using a preceding "u" character: u'abc', u"def". Lists are constructed with square brackets, separating items with commas: [a, b, c]. Tuples are constructed by the comma operator (not within square brackets), with or without enclosing parentheses, but an empty tuple must have the enclosing parentheses, such as a, b, c or (). A single item tuple must have a trailing comma, such as (d,). Buffer objects are not directly supported by Python syntax, but can be created by calling the builtin function buffer(). They don't support concatenation or repetition. Xrange objects are similar to buffers in that there is no specific syntax to create them, but they are created using the xrange() function. They don't support slicing, concatenation or repetition, and using in, not in, min() or max() on them is inefficient. Most sequence types support the following operations. The "in" and "not in" operations have the same priorities as the comparison operations. The "+" and "*" operations have the same priority as the corresponding numeric operations.3.3 This table lists the sequence operations sorted in ascending priority (operations in the same box have the same priority). In the table, s and t are sequences of the same type; n, i and j are integers: Operation Result Notes x in s True if an item of s is equal to x, else False (1) x not in s False if an item of s is equal to x, else True (1) s + t the concatenation of s and t (6) s * n , n * s n shallow copies of s concatenated (2) s[i] i'th item of s, origin 0 (3) s[i:j] slice of s from i to j (3), (4) s[i:j:k] slice of s from i to j with step k (3), (5) len(s) length of s min(s) smallest item of s max(s) largest item of s Notes: (1) When s is a string or Unicode string object the in and not in operations act like a substring test. In Python versions before 2.3, x had to be a string of length 1. In Python 2.3 and beyond, x may be a string of any length. (2) Values of n less than 0 are treated as 0 (which yields an empty sequence of the same type as s). Note also that the copies are shallow; nested structures are not copied. This often haunts new Python programmers; consider: >>> lists = [[]] * 3 >>> lists [[], [], []] >>> lists[0].append(3) >>> lists [[3], [3], [3]] What has happened is that [[]] is a one-element list containing an empty list, so all three elements of [[]] * 3 are (pointers to) this single empty list. Modifying any of the elements of lists modifies this single list. You can create a list of different lists this way: >>> lists = [[] for i in range(3)] >>> lists[0].append(3) >>> lists[1].append(5) >>> lists[2].append(7) >>> lists [[3], [5], [7]] (3) If i or j is negative, the index is relative to the end of the string: len(s) + i or len(s) + j is substituted. But note that -0 is still 0. (4) The slice of s from i to j is defined as the sequence of items with index k such that i <= k < j. If i or j is greater than len(s), use len(s). If i is omitted or None, use 0. If j is omitted or None, use len(s). If i is greater than or equal to j, the slice is empty. (5) The slice of s from i to j with step k is defined as the sequence of items with index x = i + n*k such that $0 \leq n < \frac{j-i}{k}$. In other words, the indices are i, i+k, i+2*k, i+3*k and so on, stopping when j is reached (but never including j). If i or j is greater than len(s), use len(s). If i or j are omitted or None, they become end'' values (which end depends on the sign of k). Note, k cannot be zero. If k is None, it is treated like 1. (6) If s and t are both strings, some Python implementations such as CPython can usually perform an in-place optimization for assignments of the form s=s+t or s+=t. When applicable, this optimization makes quadratic run-time much less likely. This optimization is both version and implementation dependent. For performance sensitive code, it is preferable to use the str.join() method which assures consistent linear concatenation performance across versions and implementations. Changed in version 2.4: Formerly, string concatenation never occurred in-place. 3.6.1 String Methods These are the string methods which both 8-bit strings and Unicode objects support: capitalize( ) Return a copy of the string with only its first character capitalized. For 8-bit strings, this method is locale-dependent. center( width[, fillchar]) Return centered in a string of length width. Padding is done using the specified fillchar (default is a space). Changed in version 2.4: Support for the fillchar argument. count( sub[, start[, end]]) Return the number of occurrences of substring sub in string S[start:end]. Optional arguments start and end are interpreted as in slice notation. decode( [encoding[, errors]]) Decodes the string using the codec registered for encoding. encoding defaults to the default string encoding. errors may be given to set a different error handling scheme. The default is 'strict', meaning that encoding errors raise UnicodeError. Other possible values are 'ignore', 'replace' and any other name registered via codecs.register_error, see section 4.8.1. New in version 2.2. Changed in version 2.3: Support for other error handling schemes added. encode( [encoding[,errors]]) Return an encoded version of the string. Default encoding is the current default string encoding. errors may be given to set a different error handling scheme. The default for errors is 'strict', meaning that encoding errors raise a UnicodeError. Other possible values are 'ignore', 'replace', 'xmlcharrefreplace', 'backslashreplace' and any other name registered via codecs.register_error, see section 4.8.1. For a list of possible encodings, see section ကြၽန္ေတာ္ ငါးပုိင္းေလာက္ ခြဲေရးထားပါတယ္ ပူးတြဲျပရင္ စာလုံးအေရအတြက္ မ်ားသြားလုိ႔ပါ Last edited by ေမာင္ဧက; 12-09-2008 at 11:51 PM..
 ေအာက္ပါအသင္း၀င္မွ ေမာင္ဧက အား ေက်းဇူးတင္စကား ေျပာၾကားသြားပါသည္။
 31-12-2010, 04:12 PM
 thureinsoe MF Contributor     အသင္း၀င္ေန႔စြဲ: Mar 2010 တည္ေနရာ: ရန္ကုန္ ေရးသားခ်က္မ်ား: 580 ႏိုင္ငံအလံ: ေက်းဇူးတင္စကား: 2,093 ပို႔စ္ 525 ခုအတြက္ 3,955 ဦးမွ ေက်းဇူးတင္ေၾကာင္းေျပာပါသည္။ Python ebookေလးပါ Python အေၾကာင္းကိုေတာ႔ ၾကားဖူးၾကမွာပါ. Python ဟာ ေလ႔လာရလြယ္ကူၿပီး ေရးရာတြင္ Productivity ေကာင္းတယ္ဆိုၾကပါတယ္ Python ဟာ Hight Level Programming Language ျဖစ္ပါတယ္ ပိုသိခ်င္ေတာ့ Code: http://python.org/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Python_...ng_language%29 ေအာက္ကလင့္ကေတာ့ Python ebookေလးပါ သူတည္းတစ္ေယာက္ေကာင္းဖို႔ေရာက္မူ သူတစ္ေယာက္မွာပ်က္လင္႔ကာသာဓမၼတာတည္း နႏၵသူရိယအမတ္ၾကီး phpcrazy.mm@gmail.com
 ေအာက္ပါအသင္း၀င္ 2 ဦးတို႔မွ thureinsoe အား ေက်းဇူးတင္စကား ေျပာၾကားသြားပါသည္။

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 ဖိုရမ္ေတြ ေက်ာ္ေရာက္ခ်င္ရင္ ! ပင္မထိန္းခ်ဳပ္မႈ႒ာန စာခၽြန္လႊာ မွတ္သားထားခ်က္မ်ား ဘယ္သူေတြရွိေနလဲ ဖိုရမ္ေတြမွာ ရွာခ်င္ရင္ ဖိုရမ္၏မူလစာမ်က္ႏွာ ..:: ေၾကညာခ်က္မ်ား ::.     စည္းကမ္းခ်က္     အသိေပးခ်က္မ်ား     မသိမျဖစ္ ..:: မိသားစု၀င္တို*     ကြၽန္ေတာ္သည္...     ကြၽန္မသည္....     ေမြးေန႔မဂၤလာ ..:: ကြန္ပ်ဴတာနယ္ပ)     Applications, Operating Systems & E-books         Applications         Operating Systems             Windows XP             Windows Vista             Windows 7             Windows 8             Windows Server             Linux OS             Mac OS and Other OS         E-Books & Tutorials     Linux မ်ား (သုိ႕) Linux ႏွင္     Hardware မ်ားဆိုင္ရာ     Software မ်ားဆိုင္ရာ     Network ပိုင္းဆိုင္ရာ     Windows ႏွင့္သက္ဆိုင္&     ကြန္ပ်ဴတာဆိုင္&#         ကြန္ပ်ဴတာဆိုင္&#         Virus & Anti-virus ပိုင္းဆိုင္         အေထြေထြဗဟုသုတ         Internet ႏွင့္ဆိုင္ရာမ             Websites မ်ားႏွင္႕ပတ္သ             Chat software မ်ားဆိုင္ရာ         Desktop Fun     Web Development Section - 1         Portal/Forum/Blog/CMS             ေဆြးေႏြးခ်က္မ်&#             E-books မ်ား             Softwares မ်ား         Templates / Wallpapers /Icons         HTML Programming             ေဆြးေႏြးခ်က္မ်&#             E-books မ်ား             Softwares မ်ား         JavaScript             ေဆြးေႏြးခ်က္မ်&#             E-books မ်ား             Softwares မ်ား         CSS             ေဆြးေႏြးခ်က္မ်&#             E-books မ်ား         Flash             ေဆြးေႏြးခ်က္မ်&#             E-books မ်ား             Softwares မ်ား     Web Development Section - 2         Search Engine Optimization             ေဆြးေႏြးခ်က္မ်&#             E-books မ်ား             Softwares မ်ား         Dreamweaver             ေဆြးေႏြးခ်က္မ်&#             E-books မ်ား             Softwares မ်ား         Databases             ေဆြးေႏြးခ်က္မ်&#             E-books မ်ား             Softwares မ်ား         Photoshop             ေဆြးေႏြးခ်က္မ်&#             E-books မ်ား             Softwares မ်ား     Programming Languages - 1         PHP             ေဆြးေႏြးခ်က္မ်&#             E-books မ်ား             Softwares မ်ား         C Programming             ေဆြးေႏြးခ်က္မ်&#             E-books မ်ား             Softwares မ်ား         Java             ေဆြးေႏြးခ်က္မ်&#             E-books မ်ား             Softwares မ်ား         ASP Programming             ေဆြးေႏြးခ်က္မ်&#             E-books မ်ား             Softwares မ်ား         .Net Development             ေဆြးေႏြးခ်က္မ်&#             E-books မ်ား             Softwares မ်ား     Programming Languages - 2         Visual Basic             ေဆြးေႏြးခ်က္မ်&#             E-books မ်ား             Softwares မ်ား         XML             ေဆြးေႏြးခ်က္မ်&#             E-books မ်ား         AJAX             ေဆြးေႏြးခ်က္မ်&#             E-books မ်ား         Flash             ေဆြးေႏြးခ်က္မ်&#             E-books မ်ား             Softwares မ်ား         Perl             ေဆြးေႏြးခ်က္မ်&#             E-books မ်ား             Softwares မ်ား         Python             ေဆြးေႏြးခ်က္မ်&#             E-books မ်ား ..:: ေဆးပညာႏွင့္အင)     က်န္းမာေရးက႑     အင္ဂ်င္နီယာဆို&#         Artificial Intelligence             ေဆြးေႏြးခ်က္မ်&#             E-books မ်ား             Softwares မ်ား         Ethical Hacking             ေဆြးေႏြးခ်က္မ်&#             E-books မ်ား             Softwares မ်ား         Security             ေဆြးေႏြးခ်က္မ်&#             E-books မ်ား             Softwares မ်ား         Algorithm             ေဆြးေႏြးခ်က္မ်&#             E-books မ်ား     အင္ဂ်င္နီယာဆို&#         MATLAB             ေဆြးေႏြးခ်က္မ်&#             E-books မ်ား             Softwares မ်ား         MathCAD , OrCAD             ေဆြးေႏြးခ်က္မ်&#             E-books မ်ား             Softwares မ်ား         AutoCAD, Solid Edge, SolidWorks             ေဆြးေႏြးခ်က္မ်&#             E-books မ်ား             Softwares မ်ား         Maya , 3D Max             ေဆြးေႏြးခ်က္မ်&#             E-books မ်ား             Softwares မ်ား         SAP             ေဆြးေႏြးခ်က္မ်&#             E-books မ်ား             Softwares မ်ား     အင္ဂ်င္နီယာဆို&#         အင္ဂ်င္နီယာဆို&#             Civil Engineering             Electrical / Electronic Engineering             Aeronautical Engineering             Petroleum Engineering             Mechanical Engineering             Marine / Ocean Engineering             Metallurgical Engineering             Architectural & Interior Design             အင္ဂ်င္နီယာဆို&#         အင္ဂ်င္နီယာဆို&# ..:: Mobile Fields ::..     Mobile Discussion         iOS         Android         Windows Mobile         Symbian & Others         Mobile အေထြေထြ     Mobile Games, Softwares and E-books         Mobile Games         Mobile Softwares         Palm/PDA/PPC         Ebooks     Mobile Theme, Ringtones and Wallpapers         Mobiles Theme         Ringtones and Wallpapers ..:: လူငယ္သဘာ၀ ဂိမ္     ဂိမ္းေတြယူမလား     ကြန္ပ်ဴတာဂိမ္း&# ..:: ျမန္မာမိသားစု)     စာအုပ္စင္         သုတ ရသ စာအုပ္မ်ာ         PDF သို႕ေျပာင္းလဲƟ     ..:: ၀တၳဳတိုႏွင္႔ေ)     ..:: ၀တၳဳရွည္မ်ား ::..     ..:: ကာတြန္းႏွင့္ဟ)     ..:: ကဗ်ာမ်ား ::..     ..:: ဂ်ာနယ္ႏွင့္မဂ) ..:: ႐ုပ္ရွင္ႏွင့္(     တိုက္ရိုက္ၾကည္&#     ရုပ္ရွင္ေဒါင္း&#     သီခ်င္းေဒါင္းလ&#         အမ်ိဳးသားေတးသံ&#         အမ်ိဳးသမီးေတးသ&#         စံုတြဲေတးသံရွင&#         အဖြဲ႕အလိုက္သီဆ&#         ႏိုင္ငံျခားသီခ&#     ရုပ္ရွင္ ၊ ဂီတ ေလ ..:: ေဆြးေႏြးၾကမယ္ ::.     အမိျမန္မာျပည္     ဘာသာ ၊ သာသနာ     ဘ၀ဟူသည္     မြန္းက်ပ္လာရင္     ေထြရာေလးပါး     ရင္၌ျဖစ္ေသာ ..:: သုတပေဒသာ ::.     မွတ္ဖြယ္ေထြေထြ     ျမန္မာမိသားစုအ&#         အဂၤလိပ္စာသင္တန&#         တ႐ုတ္စာသင္တန္း         ဂ်ပန္စာသင္တန္း         ဂီတသင္တန္း     ျမန္မာမိသားစုဂ&#     အေကာင္းဆံုးေတြ &         အေကာင္းဆံုးေဆြ&#             အေကာင္းဆံုး ပညာ&                 ၂၀၁၁ ခုႏွစ္                 ၂၀၁၂ ခုႏွစ္                 ၂၀၁၃ ခုႏွစ္             အထိေရာက္ဆံုး ေျ&                 ၂၀၁၁ ခုႏွစ္                 ၂၀၁၂ ခုႏွစ္                 ၂၀၁၃ ခုႏွစ္             အေကာင္းဆံုး ရင္&                 ၂၀၁၁ ခုႏွစ္                 ၂၀၁၂ ခုႏွစ္                 ၂၀၁၃ ခုႏွစ္             အေကာင္းဆံုး ရင္&                 ၂၀၁၁ ခုႏွစ္                 ၂၀၁၂ ခုႏွစ္                 ၂၀၁၃ ခုႏွစ္             ဖတ္ရႈသင့္ေသာ သု&                 ၂၀၁၁ ခုႏွစ္                 ၂၀၁၂ ခုႏွစ္                 ၂၀၁၃ ခုႏွစ္             အေကာင္းဆံုး တို&                 ၂၀၁၁ ခုႏွစ္                 ၂၀၁၂ ခုႏွစ္                 ၂၀၁၃ ခုႏွစ္             အေကာင္းဆံုး ဘာသ&                 ၂၀၁၁ ခုႏွစ္                 ၂၀၁၂ ခုႏွစ္                 ၂၀၁၃ ခုႏွစ္         အေကာင္းဆံုးမွ်&#             အေကာင္းဆံုး နည္&                 ၂၀၁၁ ခုႏွစ္                 ၂၀၁၂ ခုႏွစ္                 ၂၀၁၃ ခုႏွစ္             အေကာင္းဆုံး ကူည&                 ၂၀၁၁ ခုႏွစ္                 ၂၀၁၂ ခုႏွစ္                 ၂၀၁၃ ခုႏွစ္             အေကာင္းဆုံး ကဗ်&                 ၂၀၁၁ ခုႏွစ္                 ၂၀၁၂ ခုႏွစ္                 ၂၀၁၃ ခုႏွစ္             အေကာင္းဆုံး ေဆာ&                 ၂၀၁၁ ခုႏွစ္                 ၂၀၁၂ ခုႏွစ္                 ၂၀၁၃ ခုႏွစ္             အေကာင္းဆုံး တုိ&                 ၂၀၁၁ ခုႏွစ္                 ၂၀၁၂ ခုႏွစ္             အေကာင္းဆုံး ဘာသ&                 ၂၀၁၁ ခုႏွစ္                 ၂၀၁၂ ခုႏွစ္                 ၂၀၁၃ ခုႏွစ္             အေကာင္းဆုံး Uploader မ်                 ၂၀၁၁ ခုႏွစ္                 ၂၀၁၂ ခုႏွစ္                 ၂၀၁၃ ခုႏွစ္ ..:: ဖက္ရွင္က်က် အလ     ကိုလူပ်ိဳတို႔ ၀&     ပ်ိဳမဒီတို႔ ၀တ္& ..:: အားကစားႏွင့္သ)     အားကစားက႑     သတင္းက႑         ႏိုင္ငံတကာေရးရ&#         စီပြားေရးသတင္း&#         က်န္းမာေရး         အားကစားသတင္းမ်&#         သိပၸံေလာက         လူမႈေရးသတင္းမ်&#         အေထြေထြမွတ္စု         ဖိုရမ္လႈပ္ရွား&#         ပရဟိတလုပ္ငန္းမ&#     လုပ္ငန္းလမ္းညႊ&#         အလုပ္လိုခ်င္သူ&#         အလုပ္ရွင္မ်ားသ&# ..:: ေတာင္းဆိုရန္ ::..     Application မ်ားလိုလွ်င္     ဂိမ္းေတြရွာမရျ&#     Crack နဲ႔ Serial ေတြလိုေနသ&#     E-Books နဲ႕ Tutorials ေတြလိုအပ)     အေထြေထြေတာင္းဆ&# ..:: အကူအညီယူရင္းအ*     ဖိုရမ္မွအခက္အခ&#     အျခားအခက္အခဲမ်&#         Hardware, Devices & Maintenance         Tutorials & Tips Request         Drivers, Sound & Audio         Network & Sharing         Virus, Antivirus & Security         Crashes & Debugging         Microsoft Office         Internet, Browsers, Mail, Chat & Web         Games Errors         Linux & Other OS     အႀကံျပဳခ်က္မ်ာ&# ..:: အမိႈက္ပံုး ::..     ..:: ဖိုရမ္အမႈိက္ပ)

ဖိုရမ္၏ ပင္မအခ်ိန္သည္ ဂရင္းနစ္စံေတာ္ခ်ိန္ +6.5 ျဖစ္သည္။ေဒသစံေတာ္ခ်ိန္ 12:58 AM
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